The Book of Tea: 18

(What’s the Story) Morning Glory

The birth of the Art of the Flower Arrangement seems to be simultaneous with that of Teaism in the fifteenth century. Our legends ascribe the flower arrangement to those early Buddhist saints who gathered the flowers strewn by the storm and, in their infinite solicitude for all livings things, placed them in vessels of water. It is said that Soami, the great painter and connoisseur of the court of Ashikaga-Yoshimasa, was one of the earliest adepts at it. Juko, the tea-master, was one of his pupils, as was also Senno, the founder of the house of Ikenobo, a family as illustrious in the annals of flowers as was that of the Kanosin painting. With the perfecting of the tea-ritual under Rikiu, in the latter part of the sixteenth century, flower arrangement also attains its full growth. Rikiu and his successors, the celebrated Oda-waraku, Furuta-Oribe, Koyetsu, Kobori-Enshiu, Katagiri-Sekishiu, vied with each other in forming new combinations. We must remember, however, that the flower worship of the tea-masters formed only a part of their aesthetic ritual, and was not a distinct religion by itself. A flower arrangement, like the other works of art in the tea-room, was subordinated to the total scheme of decoration. Thus, Sekishiu ordained that white plum blossoms should not be made use of when snow lay in the garden. “Noisy” flowers were relentlessly banished from the tea-room. A flower arrangement by a tea-master loses its significance if removed from the place for which it was originally intended, for its lines and proportions have been specially worked out with a view to its surroundings. 

 生花の芸術の誕生は十五世紀の茶道と同時のように思われる.我々の伝説は、生花を嵐によって撒き散らされた花に集った初期の仏教徒の聖人に帰するとして、万物の生けるものへの無限の配慮において、水の器にそれを活けたのであった.偉大な画家であり、足利義政の宮廷の鑑定家であった相阿弥は、初期の生花の達人であった.茶の宗匠であった珠光は、彼の門弟の一人で、狩野の絵画のように生花の年代記が輝かしい池坊の創始である専応も門弟であった.

 千利休のもと茶の儀礼の完成にともなって、十六世紀の後期に、生花は完全な成長を成し遂げた.利休とその後継者、有名な織田有楽、古田織部、光悦、小堀遠州、片桐石州が新たな組み合わせを作ろうと切削した.

 しかしながら、私達が覚えておかないとならないのは、茶の宗匠の花の礼賛は彼らの審美的儀礼の一部をつくったに過ぎないことであり、そのものによる明らかな宗教ではなかったということである.生花は、茶室での芸術の他の作品のように、装飾の全体の図式に従属したのである.

 こうして石州は庭に雪が積もったときに寒梅を使うべきでないと決めた.「騒がしい」花は茶室から容赦なく追放された.茶の宗匠による生花は本来そうあるべき場所から除かれればその意義を失うのである.というのは、その線と釣り合いが特に周囲と景観に作用していたからであった.

The adoration of the flower for its own sake begins with the rise of “Flower-Masters,” toward the middle of the seventeenth century. It now becomes independent of the tea-room and knows no laws save that that the vase imposes on it. New conceptions and methods of execution now become possible, and many were the principles and schools resulting therefrom. A writer in the middle of the last century said he could count over one hundred different schools of flower arrangement. Broadly speaking, these divide themselves into two main branches, the Formalistic and the Naturalesque. The Formalistic schools, led by the Ikenobo, aimed at a classic idealism corresponding to that of the Kano-academicians. We possess records of arrangements by the early masters of this school which almost reproduce the flower paintings of Sansetsu and Tsunenobu. The Naturalesque school, on the other hand, as its name implies, accepted nature as its model, only imposing such modifications of form as conduced to the expression of artistic unity. Thus we recognise in its works the same impulses which formed the Ukiyoe and Shijo schools of painting.

 花自身のための称揚が「生花の宗匠」の興隆とともに始まったのは、十七世紀の中期にかけてであった.今や茶室から独立し、花瓶に課す法則を覗いて何もないことを知っている.

 新たな構想と方法の実践が今や可能となり、多くは原理とそれを生み出す流派であった.十九世紀の中期におけるある文人は生花には百以上の流派が計上できるといった.大まかに言えば、これらは様式派と自然主義派の二つの主流に分けられる.池坊の流れを組む様式派は、狩野派のそれに付随する古典的理想主義を目指した.山雪と常信の花の絵とほとんど再現したにひとしい、この流派の早期の宗匠たちによる記録がある.一方で、自然主義派はその名前が示す通り、自然をその模範として受容し、芸術的統合の表現に貢献するような形の修正を行うに過ぎなかった.

 このようにして我々はその作品において浮世絵と四条派の絵画を形作った同一の衝動を認めることができる.

It would be interesting, had we time, to enter more fully than is now possible into the laws of composition and detail formulated by the various flower-masters of this period, showing, as they would, the fundamental theories which governed Tokugawa decoration. We find them referring to the Leading Principle(Heaven), the Subordinate Principle(Earth), the Reconciling Principle(Man), and any flower arrangement which did not embody these principles was considered barren and dead. They also dwelt much on the importance of treating a flower in its three different aspects, the Formal, the Semi-Formal, and the Informal. The first might be said to represent flowers in the stately costume of the ballroom, the second in the easy elegance of afternoon dress, the third in the charming deshabille of the boudoir.

 時間があり、その時期の多様な花の宗匠による様式だった構成と細部の法則を、より十分に今や堪能することができればさぞかし興味深いであろう.そうすれば徳川期の装飾を治めた基礎的理論があきらかになろう.彼らは指導的原則「天」、従属的原則「地」、調和的原則「人」について述べ、それらの原則に具体的に表現できない生花は不毛で死んだものと考えられた.これら三つの観点、すなわち「正式」、「半正式」、「略式」(真、行、草)があり、花の扱い方の重要性を説明している.最初のものは舞踏室の正装に合うような花を、二番目は簡素で華やかなアフタヌーンドレスを着る時の花を、三番目は寝室の可愛らしい普段着を着る時の花だといえよう.

Our personal sympathies are with the flower-arrangements of the tea-master rather than with those of the flower-master. The former is art in its proper setting and appeals to us on account of its true intimacy with life. We should like to call this school the Natural in contradiction to the Naturalesque and Formalistic schools. The tea-master deems his duty ended with the selection of the flowers, and leaves them to tell their own story. Entering a tea-room in late winter, you may see a slender spray of wild cherries in combination with a budding camellia; prophecy of spiring. Again, if you go into a noon-tea on some irritatingly hot summer day, you may discover in the darkened coolness of the tokonoma a single lily in a hanging vase; dripping with dew, it seems to smile at the foolishness of life.

 個人的には花の宗匠よりもむしろ茶の宗匠が活けた花に共感する.それはその生命との親密さに基づいて我々を魅了し独特な配置を行う芸術である.我々はこの流派を「自然主義派」および「様式派」と区別して「自然派」と呼びたい.茶の宗匠らは自分の義務は花の選定で終わると考え、葉に自分の物語を言って聞かせるようにしたのである.

 晩冬に茶室に入ると、蕾のある椿、それは春の予言であり、ともに野桜の華奢な配置をみる.もう一つ、暑い夏の日、いらいらしながら正午の茶に赴くと、床の間の暗い涼しさの中に掛け花瓶に一輪の百合があり、露に濡れているのを見る.花は人生の愚かさに笑いかけているように見える.

A solo of flowers is interesting, but in a concerto with painting and sculpture the combination becomes entrancing. Sekishiu once placed some waterplants in a flat receptacle to suggest the vegetation of lakes and marshes, and on the wall above he hung a painting by Soami of wild duck flying in the air. Shoha, another tea-master, combined a poem on the Beauty of Solitude by the Sea with a bronze incense burner in the form a fisherman’s hut and some wild flowers of the beach. One of the guests has recorded that he felt in the whole composition the breath of waning autumn.

 花の独奏も興味深いが、絵画や彫刻との共演もうっとりするものだ.石州はかつてある水草を平らな盆におき、湖と干潟を暗示させ、壁には相阿弥による鴨が飛んでいる絵を掛けたのであった.もう一人の茶の宗匠である、紹巴というものは、浜の野草と漁夫の小屋を模した青銅の香炉を焚いて海辺の孤独の美の詩を添えた.ある客人は全体の構成に去りゆく秋を感じたと記録に残している.

Flower stories are endless. We shall recount but one more. In the sixteenth century the morning-glory was as yet a rare plant with us. Rikiu had an entire garden planted with it, which he cultivated with assiduous care. The fame of his convolvuli reached the ear of the Taiko, and he expressed a desire to see them, in consequence of which Rikiu invited him to a morning tea at his house. On the appointed day Taiko walked through the garden, but nowhere could he see any vestige of the convolvulus. The ground had been leveled and strewn with fine pebbles and sand. With sullen anger the despot entered the tea-room, but a sight waited him there which completely restored his humour. On the tokonoma, in a rare bronze of Sung workmanship, lay a single morning-glory—the queen of the whole garden!

 花の物語はきりがない.もう一つだけで終わりにしよう.十六世紀には朝顔は日本人にとって希少な植物であった.利休は一面に朝顔を植え、根気強く育てた.彼の朝顔の名声が太閤の耳に届くと、太閤は朝顔を見たいと思った.その結果、利休は彼を自宅で朝の茶に招いた.約束の日に太閤は庭を通ったが、朝顔はどこにもなかった.地面は平らになり細かい丸石が敷かれていた.怒りの君主は茶室に入ると、彼を待つ光景は彼をすっかり喜ばせた.床の間には、宗の希少な青銅の作品の中に一輪の朝顔があったのである.庭全体の女王とでもいうべきものであった.

In such instances we see the full significance of the Flower Sacrifice. Perhaps the flowers appreciate the full significance of it. They are not cowards, like men. Some flowers glory in death —certainly the Japanese cherry blossoms do, as they freely surrender themselves to the winds. Anyone who has stood before the fragrant avalanche at Yoshino or Arashiyama must have realised this. For a moment they hover like bejewelled clouds and dance above the crystal streams; then, as they sail away on the laughing waters, they seem to say: “Farewell, O Spring! We are on to Eternity.”

 このような例から、我々は花の犠牲というものを十分に理解できる.おそらく花はそのことを十分に理解しているのだろう.彼らは人間のように、腰抜けではない.ある花は死によって栄光を得る.日本の桜はそうであり、気ままに風に身を任せるのである.吉野や嵐山の桜吹雪の前に立つものは誰もがこのことを理解するにちがいないであろう.一瞬で花は宝石を散りばめた雲のように漂い、水晶の流れの上を踊る.そして、笑う水を流れていくのである.彼らはこう言っているように思える.

「春よ、さらば.我らは永遠に旅立つ」

 ここまで読んでくださり、どうもありがとうございました.

投稿者:

吾郎

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