Gitanjali: 2

 ラビンドラナート・タゴールによる「ギタンジャリ」の序文はウィリアム・バトラー・イェイツによって記されたものです.前回に続き、今回もその翻訳です.読んでいただければわかるのですが、簡単な単語なのに日本語にすることが難しい.とても難しいのです.直観ではわかる一方、誰かに伝えようとする瞬間から、日本語に変換する難しさを感じてしまいます.これは日英の文法構造が異なるからなのか.私が理解できていたとしても英→日は誰にとっても困難なのだろうか.それとも私が「わかっていない」からなのか.もし後者だとすれば自分の非力さが悲しい.英文の構造を守りつつ、日本語の柔軟さを意識して訳してみましたが、なんだかしっくりこないですね.

Introduction

I

Other Indians came to see me and their reverence for this man sounded strange in our world, where we hide great and little things under the same veil of obvious comedy and half-serious depreciation. When we were making the cathedrals had we a like reverence for our great men? 

“Every morning at three—I know, for I have seen it”—one said to me, “he sits immovable in contemplation, and for two hours does not awake from his reverie upon the nature of God. His father, the Maha Rishi, would sometimes sit there all through the next day; once, upon a river, he fell into contemplation because of the beauty of the landscape, and the rowers waited for eight hours before they could continue their journey.” 

He then told me of Mr. Tagore’s family and how for generations great men have come out of its cradles. 

“Today,” he said, “there are Gogonendranath and Abanindranath Tagore, who are artists; and Dwijendranath, Rabindranath’s brother, who is a great philosopher. The squirrels come from the boughs and climb on to his knees and the birds alight upon his hands.” 

I notice in these men’s thought a sense of visible beauty and meaning as though they held that doctrine of Nietzsche that we must not believe in the moral or intellectual beauty which does not sooner or later impress itself upon physical things. 

I said, “In the East you know how to keep a family illustrious. The other day the curator of a Museum pointed out to me a little dark-skinned man who was arranging their Chinese prints and said, ‘That is the hereditary connoisseur of the Mikado, he is the fourteenth of his family to hold the post.'” 

He answered. “When Rabindranath was a boy he had all round him in his home literature and music.” I thought of the abundance, of the simplicity of the poems, and said, “In your country is there much propagandist writing, much criticism? We have to do so much, especially in my own country, that our minds gradually cease to be creative, and yet we cannot help it. If our life was not a continual warfare, we would not have taste, we would not know what is good, we would not find hearers and readers. Four-fifths of our energy is spent in the quarrel with bad taste, whether in our own minds or in the minds of others.”

“I understand,” he replied, “we too have our propagandist writing. In the villages they recite long mythological poems adapted from the Sanscrit in the Middle Ages, and they often insert passages telling the people that they must do their duties.”

 他のインド人たちが私に会いに来た.そして、見え透いた喜劇や、半分本気の軽蔑にかこつけて、大小の事物を隠してしまう我々の世界においては奇妙に映ってしまうこの男(タゴール)に敬意を表しに来た.自国の偉人に敬意を表すように、我々が大聖堂を建てるのはいつのことになるだろうか.

 「毎朝三時に、ええ、私は観たことがありますのでね」ある人が私に言った.

 「彼(タゴール)は座って決して動かず物思いに耽るのです.そして二時間は神のなすがままに夢想から覚めることがありません.彼のお父上はマハー・リシーといって、時折そこで翌日までずっと座り続けるのでした.あるとき、河の上で、お父上は景色の美しさのために物思いに耽り始めました.漕手は彼らが旅を続けるまで八時間待っていたのですよ」

 そうして彼はタゴール氏の家族とそのゆりかごから偉大な人物がいかに幾世代にわたり生まれてきたかを教えてくれたのだった.

 「今日はどうやら、ゴゴネンドラナート、それにアバニンドラナート・タゴール、みな芸術家ですね.そしてドウィジェンドラ、ラビンドラナートの兄弟がいますね、彼は素晴らしい哲学者です.リスたちが枝からやってきて膝の上に登りますし、鳥たちは手の上に降りて止まりますよ」

 私は、こうした人々の思考に視覚的な美の感覚を見出す他に、あたかも彼らが、道徳を信奉してはならないか、あるいは何れにせよ物質的なものを超越し、自身に感銘を与えることのない理知的な美を信じてはならないというニーチェの教義を抱いているような気持ちがするのだ.

 私は「東洋では家の功績を保ち続けるにはどうするかを知っていますね.ある日、中国の印刷物を整頓していた美術館の学芸員が背の低い浅黒い肌の男を指差してこういったのです、『彼は帝の先祖代々の鑑定家ですよ、彼は家名を守る十四代目なのです』」といった.

 彼はこう答えた.「ラビンドラナートが少年の頃、彼の家の周りすべてには文学や音楽がありふれていましたよ」

 私には余剰という考えが、あの詩の簡素さが思い浮かんだ.そして、彼はこう言った.

「あなたの国ではたくさんの伝道師による作品や批評があるのですか.我々にはなすべきことがたくさんあります.特に私達の国では、我々の精神が徐々に創造性を静止させつつある状態です.しかしどうすることも出来ないのです.もし我々の人生が頻発する戦争になかったら、味わうことはなかったでしょうね.何が良いのかを知ることはなかったでしょう.人生には聞く側と読む側がいるということに気づかなかったと思うのです.我々の活力のうち八割は、自分の考えかそれとも他人のかどうかともあれ、悪い経験である諍いに費やされるのです」

「私にはわかりますよ」

 彼は続けてこう述べた.

「我々も伝道師によって書かれた作品があるのですよ.この村ではみな中世のサンスクリットからもたらされた長い神話の詩を暗唱するのです.そして彼らは節を挟んで自分たちのなすべきことについて人々に語り聞かせるのです」

拙いもので恐縮でしたがここまで読んでくださりありがとうございました.

Gitanjali: 1

 イエーツからタゴールへ.ラビンドラナート・タゴールの著作、ギタンジャリから、序文の一部を抜粋.以下はイエーツの寄稿した序文になります.翻訳は亀吾郎法律事務所のエース、吾郎が行います.米国、インド、日本で著作権が失効しています.私達は原著に敬意を持って翻訳します.

From W. B. Yeats to R. Tagore. An introduction of “Gitanjali” by Rabindranath Tagore, Yeats wrote the recommendation for the work. Goro, our chief editor of Kamegoro Law Firm hereby dares to translate his introduction with full respect.

The copyright of “Gitanjali” has expired in the United States, India, and Japan.

Introduction

I

A few days ago I said to a distinguished Bengali doctor of medicine, “I know no German, yet if a translation of a German poet had moved me, I would go to the British Museum and find books in English that would tell me something of his life, and of the history of his thought. But though these prose translations from Rabindranath Tagore have stirred my blood as nothing has for years, I shall not know anything of his life, and of the movements of thought that have made them possible, if some Indian traveller will not tell me.” 

It seemed to him natural that I should be moved, for he said, “I read Rabindranath every day, to read one line of his is to forget all the troubles of the world.” I said, “An Englishman living in London in the reign of Richard the Second had he been shown translations from Petrarch or from Dante, would have found no books to answer his questions, but would have questioned some Florentine banker or Lombard merchant as I question you. For all I know, so abundant and simple is this poetry, the new Renaissance has been born in your country and I shall never know of it except by hearsay.” 

He answered, “We have other poets, but none that are his equal; we call this the epoch of Rabindranath. No poet seems to me as famous in Europe as he is among us. He is as great in music as in poetry, and his songs are sung from the west of India into Burmah wherever Bengali is spoken. He was already famous at nineteen when he wrote his first novel; and plays, written when he was but little older, are still played in Calcutta. I so much admire the completeness of his life; when he was very young he wrote much of natural objects, he would sit all day in his garden; from his twenty-fifth year or so to his thirty-fifth perhaps, when he had a great sorrow, he wrote the most beautiful love poetry in our language”; and then he said with deep emotion, “words can never express what I owed at seventeen to his love poetry. After that his art grew deeper, it became religious and philosophical; all the aspirations of mankind are in his hymns. He is the first among our saints who has not refused to live, but has spoken out of Life itself, and that is why we give him our love.”

I may have changed his well-chosen words in my memory but not his thought. “A little while ago he was to read divine service in one of our churches—we of the Brahma Samaj use your word ‘church’ in English—it was the largest in Calcutta and not only was it crowded, people even standing in the windows, but the streets were all but impassable because of the people.”

 数日前、私は腕利きと評判のベンガル人の医師に次のように言った.「私はドイツ語を知らないのです.しかし、もしドイツの詩人の翻訳が私を感動させたとしたら、私は大英博物館に行き、その人の人生について、思想について教えてくれるような英語の本を探すと思います.しかし、ラビンドラナート・タゴールのこれら散文の翻訳は私をひどく興奮させた以外の何ものでもなかったのです.にも関わらず、もしインド人の旅人が私に教えてくれなかったらば、私は彼の人生について全く知らず、これら著作を可能にした思考の動きについても知らなかったのです」

 私が動揺するであろうことは彼にとって当然のようであった.「私はラビンドラナートの本を毎日読んでいますよ.彼の一文を読むことは世界の悩みをすべて忘れることですから」と彼は言ったからだ.私はこう言った.「リチャード二世の統治下における、ロンドン在住のとある英国人はダンテあるいはペトラルカ詩集の翻訳を見せられたのですが、彼は自分の疑問に対する答えを本に見いだせなかったのです.しかし私があなたに質問するように、フィレンツェの銀行家やロンバルディアの商人も問いかけをしたでしょう.私の知る限り、この詩歌が申し分なく、しかも簡素であるので、新たな文芸復興があなたの国で生まれたことを、私は噂なしに知ることはなかったのです」

 彼はこう答えた.「インドには他にも詩人がいますよ.しかし彼と同じのものはいませんね.ラビンドラナートの時代といってよいでしょう.彼が我々の中で有名なのと同じ様にヨーロッパで有名な詩人はいないように思いますがね.それに彼の歌はベンガル語が話される西インドからビルマで歌われているのですよ.彼は初めて小説を書いた十九歳のときに既に有名でした.劇も彼が少し歳をとってから書かれました.いまでもカルカッタで演じられています.私は彼の人生の完全性を大いに讃えているのです.彼がとても幼かったとき、自然にあるものをたくさん書いていましたね.庭に一日中いたものです.二十五歳から三十五歳でしょうか、彼が深い悲しみに包まれたとき、彼は私達の言葉で最も美しい愛の詩を書いたのです」そして彼は感慨深く、次のように述べた.「私が十七歳のときに彼の愛の詩に受けたものは、言葉にすることができません.彼の芸術が深みを増すほど、それはより敬虔でより哲学的になりました.彼の賛歌には人間の熱望すべてがあったのです.彼は、生きることを拒まぬ人々の中で最初の慈悲深い人でしたが、人生そのものについては語るのでしたよ.そしてそのことが彼に我々が愛を注ぐ理由なのです」

 私は彼の考えではなく、彼の記憶の中にある彼の吟味された言葉を変えたのだろう.「少し前、教会、つまり我々がブラフマーサマージ、あなた方の言葉の英語で教会というものの一つで、彼は神聖な奉仕について読むところでした.教会はカルカッタで最も混んでいるだけでなく最も大きいのですが、人々は窓辺に立ってさえいました.その人々のせいで道が通れなくなったのでした」

 序文の一部を試験的に投稿してみました.これからどんな話が始まるのでしょう.序文でワクワクするのは久しぶりです.

ありがとうございました.

What I have in my mind

This article is a translation of previous one.

When I was browsing books about great writers or writings, I coincidentally made the acquaintance of other writers frequently, that mainly attracted me in the past, whereas I had suspended further research on them. I never anticipated to find out the notification in the book that one and another had actually met or they had been in the same place before, or he/she had been quoted as an example of their story. That was like unexpectedly completing a piece of gigantic jigsaw puzzle which is very hard in the process of making, I felt an ease which was the same sense of fitting something accurately in my heart. If I were to see as a flying creature the vast ground from the highest view among obscure clouds, it might be as well as seeing slight landscape through a chink which is getting wider. So I would fain tell viewers about my tiny experiences which are short, and to write down my prospect as well.

At first, I would like to mention of Khalil Gibran. I brought my mind to the translation of his poetry had been arranged among the works of Kamiya Mieko in the section of Misuzu Shobo in some bookshops since long time ago. I wondered his name supposed to be originated from west Asia, and I thumbed through one of Kamiya’s book. After that I knew that Kamiya Mieko was in the department of Psychiatry of Tokyo University, school of medicine, in which Kinoshita Mokutaro(Ohta Masao) was belong to the department of Dermatology as a professor. Such connection has directly nothing to do with literary meaning, however, people may get close each other unconsciously by somewhat called a gravity, I must say.

I learnt that Gibran was born in Lebanon, where the former Ottoman empire had occupied, and he has been famous for his poetry, especially “The Prophet” has been read worldwide. It is true that his works translated in Japanese are available in remote cities of Japan as well, nevertheless the original version can be purchased only online if living in local cities. It is all the more difficult to buy other language edition. The other day I found that Gibran firstly conceived the idea of “The Prophet” in Arabic. He went to the America in his youth and learnt skills of English, then he also went back home to receive higher education of Arabic.

Fortunately I got an ebook of “The Prophet” in English and Arabic version. I am not get used to read in Kindle, but it was a good purchase that I got it within 1,000Yen. As I read the introduction, that says it took twenty years to translate in Arabic. What a long journey it is! I cannot understand the concept of price tagging when I came across such a valuable book that is affordable less than 1,000Yen. I am also a member of Kindle unlimited in Amazon.com, so I am able to read the Japanese translation by Sakuma Takeshi for free. Then I have started to read it. What I felt was that it was easy to read and not many pages. But I have to mention that read easily and be comprehensible are not the same. The energy that the writer brought his heart to bear upon every single words must be so immense that I have to read it thoroughly. This is one of my utmost happiness to realise that I can examine it many times. As for the title “The Prophet”, it is a story like a manual of life course, the prophet Almustafa(المصطفى), teaches lessons to people who need guidance. I have not read the original poetry yet so it is not the time to speak of it. And I have got the reasonable reference book for studying Arabic at last, I would like to reverse translate gradually by using this ebook. Someday I would be happy to introduce the study result.

Secondly, I would fain speak of Rabindranath Tagore. Recently, I have very been attracted by the fact that non-English born person such as Gibran creates great English writings. Needless to say, Okakura Tenshin who is inordinately contributed to Kamegoro Law Firm is the one of greatest writer from non-Anglosphere, I believe. It is tremendously shameful for me to tell you that I thought that nothing better than using own language when expressing one’s own culture. How stupid I am! That is not true. At least Tenshin himself succeeded in attempting it in literature. Of course Gibran must have accomplished, not to mention Tagore and other writers who I do not know. I am very excited to know the fact all the more that Tenshin and Tagore knew each other, and visited their countries. It is said that Tagore has been to Tenshin’s tombstone when he died. Tagore was in Izura! He wrote “Gitanjali(গীতাঞ্জলি)” in Bengali, later on he wrote it again in English. Someday, I wish I could read his work.

I think that it is a huge encouragement for me to know that such people who are from non-Anglosphere write English literature. Particularly as for myself, who live in the world of totally different linguistic family, is quite an incentive.

I sometimes write articles in English, which are not praiseworthy contents and I think I am at best the third-rate writer. There must be many errors in my sentences. But I would like to keep writing my blog in English with my style. Then I would like to sophisticate my essay writing technique, not to be contented with the present situation, humbly tolerate the critics of others and review retrospectively by myself.

Finally, I would fain end the article by introducing a songwriter from Iceland. His name is Ásgeir Trausti. He speaks Icelandic but also good at writing beautiful lyrics in English.

Glistening nighttime dew, and she is walking with me.  

From the house of red, I hear a child crying.  

Foxes heading home, their prey hangs from their jaws.

And the forest knows, but it won’t share the secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.  

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

Death cannot take hold, if I can keep momentum.  

Fortresses of stone, turn into crystal tears soothed by southern winds; I’ve found my strength now.  

And nobody knows, and we must keep their secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

Dýrð í dauðaþögn, 2012 (In the Silence, 2013)

Thank you for reading.

私の考えていること

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

 ある一つの著作なり文人について読み調べると、思いがけずとある箇所で他の著作家について記されていることがある.その著作家というのは以前から関心を寄せていた人物であることが多い一方で、それ以上の関心を留保していたことがよくあった.引用のこともあれば、実際に人物らが出会っていた、同じ場所を出入りしていたということを知る.作りかけのジグソーパズルの一ピースが意図せず偶然当てはまるような感覚で、心の中でもぴたりと符合する心地よい感覚を覚える.私が飛翔体となって巨大な地上の文学を暗雲たる空から俯瞰するとすれば、雲と雲の切れ目が少しだけ広くなって、わずかに地上の景色が見えるような、そんな感じでもある.そんなことが何度かあったから、それについて短いけれどお伝えすることとし、私の展望と合わせてここに記そうと思う.

 一つは、Khalil Gibran (ハリール・ジブラーン)のこと.私は、ずっと前から書店のみすず書房のコーナーに、神谷美恵子の著作が並んでいて、その中にGibranの詩訳が置いてあったのが気になっていた.名前からして西アジア出身の人物かな、という類推のもと、パラパラと本をめくったことがあった.神谷美恵子は木下杢太郎(太田正雄)が皮膚科教授であったころの東大医局に出入りしていたと後に知った.こうした縁は文学上直接な関係があったわけではないにせよ、人々は何らかの奇妙な引力でお互いに惹かれ合うのかもしれない.そういうしかない.

 Gibranは当時オスマン帝国の支配下にあったレバノンの出身であること、詩作がよく知られていること、特に「The Prophet:預言者」が世界中で翻訳されていることを私は知った.和文翻訳は確かに大きな書店でも並んでいて、有名だ.だが、原文は地方では通信販売でしか手に入らない.他言語であれば尚更である.私は別の時期に、GibranがThe Prophetを最初はアラビア語で構想を練ったことを知る.彼は若い頃に渡米し英語の素養を身につけるが、帰国しアラビア語の高等教育をも学んでいる.

 幸運にもアラビア語版と原文同時収録の電子書籍を手に入れることができた.私はあまりKindleを使わないから不慣れだが、1000円未満で入手できたのは良い.本の紹介を見ると訳に20年ほどかけたと書いてある.何という長い旅路であることか.これが1000円未満程度になってしまうとは物の価値はよくわからない.私はKindle unlimitedにも入っているから佐久間彪訳の邦訳を無料で読むことができる.そして早速読んでみた.私が感じたのは、思ったほど分量がないことと大変読みやすいということであった.ただ、読みやすいのとわかりやすいというのは意味が異なる.一言一句にかけるエネルギー量が他の作品と違うであろうから、何度もよく読む必要がある.これは何度も味わえるということだから、嬉しいことこの上ない.預言者という題名であるが、人生における手引きのような感覚で、預言者アルムスタファ(المصطفى)が人々に助言を与えるといった内容だ.私は原文を読んでいないから書評はこれからとなる.そして私はアラビア語の勉強に相応しいであろう教材をようやく入手できたから少しずつ、勉強がてら逆翻訳してみようと思っている.近いうちに紹介したいと思う.

 もう一つはRabindranath Tagore(ラビンドラナート・タゴール)のこと.私は最近、Gibranのように非英語圏の人物が優れた英文を著す、という事実に大変心惹かれている.勿論、亀吾郎法律事務所でお世話になっている岡倉天心も非英語圏の優れた著述家であろうと私は思っている.このようなことを言うのは無知を晒すようで恥ずかしいのであるが、私は、自国文化のことを表現するのに自国の言語以上に優れたものはないと思っていたことがあった.何という愚かさ.そんなことはないのだ.少なくとも天心はその試みにおいて成功している.もちろんGibranも成し遂げているのだろう.そしてTagoreも、私の知らない数多くの文人達も.私は天心とTagoreが親交を持ち、両者が互いに行き来したという事実を知り、益々興味が湧いている.Tagoreは天心の死後に彼の墓を訪れているという.Tagoreは五浦にいたことがあったのか.彼ははベンガル語でGitanjali (ギタンジャリ:গীতাঞ্জলি)を著し、後に英文で同著を書いたという.いつか彼の作品を読んでみたいと思っている.

 こうした人々が非母国語で文学作品を創作するというのは、心做しか大いに勇気づけられるものではないのかなと思う.特に語族が大きく異なる文化圏に暮らしている身としては.

 時々私は英文をブログに載せるが、どう贔屓目に見ても私の英文はよくできているとは思えない.様々な瑕疵があるに違いない.だが私は私なりの英文を書いていこうと考えている.そして後から見直してみたり、他者の批評を謹んで受けて少しずつ良いものを目指していきたい.

 最後に、アイスランド出身の作曲家の歌詞を紹介してお終いにしたい.彼はÁsgeir Trausti(アウスゲイル・トロスティ).彼の母語は勿論アイスランド語であるが、英語の美しい詩を書いている.

King and Cross

Glistening nighttime dew, and she is walking with me.  

From the house of red, I hear a child crying.  

Foxes heading home, their prey hangs from their jaws.

And the forest knows, but it won’t share the secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.  

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

Death cannot take hold, if I can keep momentum.  

Fortresses of stone, turn into crystal tears soothed by southern winds; I’ve found my strength now.  

And nobody knows, and we must keep their secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

In the Silence, 2013